Nonlethal Research

Below, you may find just a sample of a growing list of research in support of nonlethal conflict prevention strategies as well as research which shows that so-called lethal control has wide-ranging impacts far beyond the death of the individual. This research supports a desperately needed shift in approach to coexisting with wolves—letting wolves live.



Ohrens, O., Bonacic, C., Treves, A. 2019. Non-lethal defense of livestock against predators: Flashing lights deter puma attacks in Chile. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment n doi:10.1002/fee.1952.

van Eeden, L., Eklund, A., Miller, J.R.B.,…17 co-authors… Treves, A. (equal first authors) 2018. Carnivore conservation needs evidence-based livestock protection. PLOS Biology https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005577

Santiago-Avila, F.J., Cornman, A.M., Treves, A. 2018. Killing wolves to prevent predation on livestock may protect one farm but harm neighbors. PLOS One. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189729.

2005. Treves, A., Naughton-Treves, L. Evaluating lethal control in the management of human-wildlife conflict. People and Wildlife, Conflict or Coexistence? Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S., Rabinowitz, A. eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. pp. 86-106.

2003. Shivik, J.A., Treves, A., Callahan, M. Nonlethal techniques for managing predation: primary and secondary repellents. Conservation Biology 17(6): 1531-1537

Lennox, R. J., Gallagher, A. J., Ritchie, E. G., & Cooke, S. J. (2018). Evaluating the efficacy of predator removal in a conflict-prone world. Biological Conservation, 224, 277-289. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2018.05.003

Treves, A., Artelle, K. A., Darimont, C. T., & Parsons, D. R. (2017). Mismeasured mortality: Correcting estimates of wolf poaching in the United States. Journal of Mammalogy, 98(5), 1256-1264. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyx052

Plumer, L., Talvi, T., Männil, P. et al. Conserv Genet (2018) Assessing the roles of wolves and dogs in livestock predation with suggestions for mitigating human–wildlife conflict and conservation of wolves. 19: 665. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-017-1045-4

Treves A, Vucetich JA, Rabenhorst M, Cornman A. An evaluation of localized wolf control efforts to prevent subsequent livestock depredation in Michigan. Natural Resources Report No 2013–4 Little River Band of Ottawa Indians. 2013.

Brainerd SM, Andrén H, Bangs EE, Bradley EH, Fontaine JA, Hall W, et al. The effects of breeder loss on wolves. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 2008;72(1):89–98.

Treves A, Naughton-Treves L. Evaluating lethal control in the management of human-wildlife conflict. In: Woodroffe GL, Thirgood S, Rabinowitz A, editors. People and Wildlife, Conflict or Coexistence? Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2005. p. 86–106.

Dubois S, Fenwick N, Ryan EA, Baker L, Baker SE, Beausoleil NJ, et al. International consensus principles for ethical wildlife control. Conserv Biol. 2017.

Treves, A., Krofel, M., & Mcmanus, J. (2016). Predator control should not be a shot in the dark. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 14(7), 380-388. doi:10.1002/fee.1312

Scasta, J. D., Stam, B., & Windh, J. L. (2018). Author Correction: Rancher-reported efficacy of lethal and non-lethal livestock predation mitigation strategies for a suite of carnivores. Scientific Reports, 8(1). doi:10.1038/s41598-018-26270-2

Wielgus, R. B. & Peebles, K. A. Effects of wolf mortality on livestock depredations. PLoS ONE 9, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113505 (2014).

Bradley J. Bergstrom; Carnivore conservation: shifting the paradigm from control to coexistence, Journal of Mammalogy, Volume 98, Issue 1, 8 February 2017, Pages 1–6, https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyw185

Lesilau, F., Fonck, M., Gatta, M., Musyoki, C., Zelfde, M. V., Persoon, G. A., . . . Iongh, H. H. (2018). Effectiveness of a LED flashlight technique in reducing livestock depredation by lions (Panthera leo) around Nairobi National Park, Kenya. Plos One, 13(1). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0190898

Davidson-Nelson, S., & Gehring, T. (2010). Testing fladry as a nonlethal management tool for wolves and coyotes in Michigan. Human-Wildlife Interactions, 4(1), 87-94. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24864506

Gehring, T. M., Vercauteren, K. C., Provost, M. L., & Cellar, A. C. (2010). Utility of livestock-protection dogs for deterring wildlife from cattle farms. Wildlife Research, 37(8), 715. doi:10.1071/wr10023

Bump JK, Murawski CM, Kartano LM, Beyer DE Jr, Roell BJ (2013) Bear-Baiting May Exacerbate Wolf-Hunting Dog Conflict. PLoS ONE 8(4): e61708. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061708

Chapron, G., & Treves, A. (2016). Correction to ‘Blood does not buy goodwill: Allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore’. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 283(1845), 20162577. doi:10.1098/rspb.2016.2577

Eeden, L. M., Crowther, M. S., Dickman, C. R., Macdonald, D. W., Ripple, W. J., Ritchie, E. G., & Newsome, T. M. (2017). Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock. Conservation Biology, 32(1), 26-34. doi:10.1111/cobi.12959

Haber, G. C. (1996). Biological, Conservation, and Ethical Implications of Exploiting and Controlling Wolves. Conservation Biology, 10(4), 1068-1081. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10041068.x

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